The jumps above the ground, also called School jumps, are like all other exercises derived from natural movements of the horse. The horse can also show these movements in the field and in the herd to lose energy, impress others or maintain the hierarchy.
Every jump, whether natural, or a jump across a fence or a School jump, starts with raising the front. In a natural jump, the raising of the front, the push, the stretching and the landing melt together fluently.
In comparison, these phases are clearly distinguishable in the School jumps. The raising of the front itself is already a separate exercise called pesade. Out of this, the jump can be made: the horse is encouraged to jump with his entire weight off the ground and bring all four legs in the air.
School jumps were done in ancient times to present the rider and horse.
In times of war, they were used as means to defend.
When the horse mastered the courbette, the rider could use the horse as a shield and open an attack forward at the same time.
When the horse mastered the capriole, he could also defend itself from behind.
In the Baroque times these jumps were further developed as an art form.
Capriole Cadre Noir (France):
Capriole Spanish Riding School (Vienna):
Capriole Portugese Riding School:
Capriole Andalusian Riding School (Jerez – Spain):